по новым материалам HIAS'a|
ЧТО ВЫ ДОЛЖНЫ ЗНАТЬ, ЧТОБЫ СТАТЬ ГРАЖДАНАМИ США?
ВЫ ДОЛЖНЫ СООТВЕТСТВОВАТЬ СЛЕДУЮЩИМ ТРЕБОВАНИЯМ...
...Быть не моложе 18 лет;
...Быть постоянным жителем США не менее, чем пять лет;
...Из этих пяти лет жить на территории США не менее, чем два с половиной года;
...За эти пять лет не выезжать из США не период более одного года;
...Верить в Конституцию и форму государственного управления США;
...Быть человеком высоких моральных качеств;
...Уметь читать, писать, говорить и понимать по-английски;
...Быть знакомым с историей и основами государственного устройства США.
REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION: YOU MUST ...
...be at least 18 years of age;
...have a greencard;
...have been a lawful permanent resident of the USA for at least five years;
...have been physically present in the U.S.for two and a half of the past five years;
...have had no single absence from the U.S. for a period of one year or more in the previous five years;
...believe in the principles of the U.S. Constitution and a democratic form of government;
...be of good moral character;
...read, write, speak, and understand basic English;
...be familiar with U.S. history and the structure and principles of the U.S. government.
ABSOLUTELY SHORT COURSE OF U.S. HISTORY
ABSOLUTELY SHORT COURSE OF THE STRUCTURE AND PRINCIPLES OF THE U.S.GOVERNMENT
Discovery and Settlement
In 1492, Christopher Columbus voyadged to America.
Early settlers came from England in the 1600's.
The original people were Native Americans.
The original thirteen states were called colonies and the settlers were called colonists.
These colonies were mostly located along the Atlantic (Eastern) coast.
The first settlers in the Southwest were Spanish.
Revolutionary War and Independence
In the 1770's, colonies went to war with England over unfair laws.
George Washington led the colonists in the Revolutionary War.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence which declared the
colonies to be independent of England.
The Colonial Army won the Revolutionary War.
July 4, Independence Day, is a national holiday.
On July 4, 1776, people from the thirteen (13) colonies met at Independence Hall in Philadelphia and signed the Declaration of Independence.
On the American flag, each state is represented by a star. The thirteen (13) stripes represent the first thirteen states.
United States History Since 1800
In the 1860's, the strength of the Union was tested when the South tried to leave the Union.
This led to a bloody civil war which the North (Union Army) won.
Slavery was one issue leading to this war.
President Abraham Lincoln led the forces that saved the Union.
After the Civil War, slavery was abolished by an amendment to the United States Constitution.
After the Civil War, the United States grew rapidly and expanded to the West with large numbers of people from other countries.
The United States has fought several wars to protect its interests.
In World War II (1941-45), the United States joined other nations in fighting Japan and Germany.
The United States entered World War II when the Japanese bombed a naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
The United States has fought against Communist forces in Korea and Vietnam.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a leader in a national civil rights movement. He wanted to put an end to laws and practices that are unfair to minorities.
National Government and the Constitution |
A meetng was held at Independence Hall to write a new constitution.
In 1789, the Constitution was accepted by every state.
This Constitution set up a national government with three branches: the Judicial Branch, the Executive branch, and the Legislative Branch.
The Legislative Branch, called Congress, makes laws.
Congress meets in the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C.
Congress made up of two elected bodies:.the Senate, and the House of Reresentatives.
Each state has two members in the Senate.
States with more people (larger populations) have more House of Representative members.
The Judicial Branch includes the Supreme Court and federal courts. These courts interpret and apply the Constitution anf federal laws passed by Congress.
The Executive Branch sees that the laws are carried out.
The President is the Chief Executive.
Each of the three branches is meant to keep the other branches in balance. For example, the President may veto (not approve) a law passed by Congress. Congress can still pass the law if two-thirds of its memebers favor it.
The President duties include those of Commander-in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States.
The President is elected every four years.
George Washington was the first President.
The Constitution can be changed.The changes are called amendments.
The first ten amedments passed in 1791 are called the Bill of Rights.
These amendments guarantee (assure) rights and liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of press, and freedom of religion.
According to these amendments, people are free to meet and make their views public.
An amendment to the Constitution gave women the right6 to vote.
Citizens who are 18 years of age or older have the right to vote.
After the required periodof lawful permanent residence, a person may apply for citizenship.
The national government cannot remove a state.
State and Local Government
Each state has its own constitution.
State government is also divided into three branches: the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive Branch.
The Legislative Branch of many states has two elected groups. These groups are usually called the Senate and the General Assembly.
The Executive Branch is headed by the Governor.
The Governor is elected by the people.
The Judicial Branch is made up of state courts which interpret and apply state laws.
All states have equal rights.
No state can leave the Union.
Each state sets up counties, towns, and cities as lical governments.
The elected head of city is often called a Mayor.
Жители США могут получить печатные материалы,
относящиеся к процессу Натурализации,
запросив их в
The Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society--HIAS
333 Seventh Ave.
New York, NY 10001
New Citizens Project/ETS Guide to Helping People Become US Citizens,
включающий приведенные выше 150 вопросов и другие материалы,
звоните в ETS (English Testing Service) 1-800-358-6230.
Вопросы по эмиграционной программе вы можете задать, отправив их на почтовой открытке (обязательно укажите номер вашего телефона)по адресу:
HIAS: Questions and Answers
GPO, P.O. BOX 2552,
New York, NY 10116-2552